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Antarctic, Sub-Antarctic and cold temperate echinoid database

This database includes spatial data of Antarctic, Sub-Antarctic and cold temperate echinoid distribution (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) collected during many oceanographic campaigns led in the Southern Hemisphere from 1872 to 2010. The dataset lists occurrence data of echinoid distribution south of 35°S latitude, together with information on taxonomy (from species to genus level), sampling sources (cruise ID, sampling dates, ship names) and sampling sites (geographic coordinates and depth). Echinoid occurrence data were compiled from the Antarctic Echinoid Database (David et al., 2005a), which integrates records from oceanographic cruises led in the Southern Ocean until 2003. This database has been upgraded to take into account data from oceanographic cruises led after 2003. The dataset now reaches a total of 6160 occurrence data that have been checked for systematics reliability and consistency. It constitutes today the most complete database on Antarctic and Sub-Antarctic echinoids.

Date Published Mar 26, 2012
Version 2 (Latest)
Darwin Core Archive download (161 KB ) 6164 records
EML download (28 KB)
RTF download (25 KB)
GBIF Registration d8b06df0-81b3-41c9-bcf8-6ba5242e2b95
Organisation Antarctic Biodiversity Information Facility (ANTABIF)
Endorsing Node Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research
Southern Ocean; echinoids; Antarctic species; Sub-Antarctic species; cold temperate species
Metadata Language English
Resource Language English
Resource Contact
NameBenjamin Pierrat
PositionPhD student
OrganisationUMR CNRS 6282 Laboratoire Biogéosciences
Address Université de Bourgogne, 6 boulevard Gabriel, Dijon, FRANCE, Postal Code: 21000 Telephone: 0380396364
Resource Creator
NameBenjamin Pierrat
PositionPhD student
OrganisationUMR CNRS 6282 Laboratoire Biogéosciences
Address Université de Bourgogne, 6 boulevard Gabriel, Dijon, FRANCE, Postal Code: 21000 Telephone: 0380396364
Metadata Provider
NameBenjamin Pierrat
PositionPhD student
OrganisationUMR CNRS 6282 Laboratoire Biogéosciences
Address Université de Bourgogne, 6 boulevard Gabriel, Dijon, FRANCE, Postal Code: 21000 Telephone: 0380396364
Associated Party 1
NameBenjamin Pierrat
PositionPhD student
OrganisationUMR CNRS 6282 Laboratoire Biogéosciences
Address Université de Bourgogne, 6 boulevard Gabriel, Dijon, FRANCE, Postal Code: 21000 Telephone: 0380396364
Role Author
Associated Party 2
NameBruno David
PositionDR CNRS
OrganisationUMR CNRS 6282 Laboratoire Biogéosciences
Address Université de Bourgogne, 6 boulevard Gabriel, Dijon, FRANCE, Postal Code: 21000 Telephone: 0380396371
Role Principal Investigator
Associated Party 3
NameThomas Saucède
PositionMC uB
OrganisationUMR CNRS 6282 Laboratoire Biogéosciences
Address Université de Bourgogne, 6 boulevard Gabriel, Dijon, FRANCE, Postal Code: 21000 Telephone: 0380396307
Role Principal Investigator
Associated Party 4
NameAlain Festeau
PositionTechn. uB
OrganisationUMR CNRS 6282 Laboratoire Biogéosciences
Address Université de Bourgogne, 6 boulevard Gabriel, Dijon, FRANCE, Postal Code: 21000 Telephone: 0380396353
Role Programmer
Geographic Coverage
DescriptionThe sampling area ranges from 35°S to 71°S latitude and from 180° W to 180°E longitude. The 35°S limit is coincident with the position of the Subtropical Convergence (Tchernia, 1980; Knox, 1983), which is considered to determine the limit between tropical and cold temperate marine species. The latter species were considered in the database, as they are likely to interact with Antarctic species in the future according to scenarii of forthcoming global climate change or to have interacted with them in the past.
Bounding Coordinates-71, -35 / -180, 180 (min, max Latitude / min, max Longitude)
Taxonomic Coverage
Description This database is devoted to all echinoid species inhabiting ocean areas south of 35S latitude (Echinodermata: Echinoidea). Echinoids are well represented in the Antarctic benthic communities in terms of frequency, abundance and species richness. They are frequently collected both at shallow depths over the continental shelf and in deeper waters of the continental slope and ocean basins. With 82 species ever described that represent about 10% of echinoid species worldwide, the Southern Ocean is particularly rich in echinoid species. The Antarctic echinoid fauna is characterised by a relative high morphological diversity and high rate of endemism (66% of species - David et al. 2005b). It should be noticed that Antarctic echinoid diversity is represented by a few orders (7) among which the two orders Spatangoida and Cidaroida include 64.6% of Antarctic species. As a comparison, South Australian and New Zealand areas comprise 113 echinoid species, 62 genera and 12 orders, while southern South America only 36 species, 23 genera and 8 orders, and the Southern Ocean 82 species, 30 genera and 7 orders. Identifications and taxonomic accuracies were based on Mortensen, T. (1928, 1935, 1943, 1950, 1951) and David et al. (2005b).
Kingdom Animalia
Phylum Echinodermata
Class Echinoidea (Sea urchins)
Order Arbacioida, Cassiduloida, Cidaroida, Clypeasteroida, Echinoida, Echinothurioida, Holasteroida, Pedinoida, Salenoida, Spatangoida, Temnopleuroida
Family Apatopygidae, Arachnoididae, Arbaciidae, Aspidodiadematidae, Asterostomatidae, Brissidae, Cidaridae, Clypeasteridae, Diadematidae, Echinidae, Echinolampadidae, Echinometridae, Echinothuriidae, Fibulariidae, Hemiasteridae, Laganidae, Loveniidae, Mellitidae, Palaeotropidae, Pedinidae, Phormosomatidae, Plexechinidae, Pourtalesiidae, Saleniidae, Schizasteridae, Spatangidae, Temnopleuridae, Toxopneustidae, Urechinidae
Genus Abatus, Aceste, Amblypneustes, Ammotrophus, Amphipneustes, Anametalia, Antrechinus, Apatopygus, Aporocidaris, Araeosoma, Arbacia, Aspidodiadema, Austrocidaris, Brachysternaster, Brisaster, Brissopsis, Brissus, Caenopedina, Calveriosoma, Centrostephanus, Ceratophysa, Clypeaster, Coelopleurus, Ctenocidaris, Cyclaster, Cystechinus, Cystocrepis, Delopatagus, Dermechinus, Diadema, Echinocardium, Echinocrepis, Echinocyamus, Echinolampas, Echinosigra, Echinus, Encope, Eupatagus, Evechinus, Fellaster, Fibularia, Genicopatagus, Goniocidaris, Gracilechinus, Gymnopatagus, Helgocystis, Heliocidaris, Hemiaster, Heterobrissus, Histocidaris, Holopneustes, Hygrosoma, Kamptosoma, Linopneustes, Loxechinus, Mellita, Microcyphus, Moira, Notocidaris, Ogmocidaris, Orechinus, Pachycentrotus, Paleotrema, Paramaretia, Peronella, Phormosoma, Phyllacanthus, Pilematechinus, Plexechinus, Polyechinus, Poriocidaris, Pourtalesia, Prionocidaris, Protenaster, Pseudechinus, Pseudoboletia, Rhopalocidaris, Rhynchocidaris, Salenia, Salenocidaris, Salmaciella, Solenocystis, Spatagocystis, Spatangus, Sperosoma, Sterechinus, Stereocidaris, Stylocidaris, Temnopleurus, Tetrapygus, Toxopneustes, Tripneustes, Tripylaster, Tripylus, Tromikosoma, Urechinus
Species Abatus agassizii ,Abatus beatriceae ,Abatus bidens ,Abatus cavernosus, Abatus cf.curvidens ,Abatus cordatus ,Abatus curvidens ,Abatus elongatus ,Abatus ingens ,Abatus nimrodi ,Abatus philippii ,Abatus shackletoni ,Abatus sp. ,Aceste bellidifera ,Aceste ovata ,Amblypneustes formosus ,Amblypneustes grandis ,Amblypneustes ovum ,Amblypneustes pachistus ,Amblypneustes pallidus ,Amblypneustes pulchellus ,Ammotrophus cyclius ,Amphipneustes aff similis ,Amphipneustes bifidus ,Amphipneustes brevisternalis ,Amphipneustes davidi ,Amphipneustes koehleri ,Amphipneustes lorioli ,Amphipneustes marsupialis ,Amphipneustes mironovi ,Amphipneustes rostratus ,Amphipneustes similis ,Amphipneustes sp. ,Anametalia regularis ,Antrechinus drygalskii ,Antrechinus mortenseni ,Antrechinus nordenskjoldi ,Apatopygus recens ,Aporocidaris eltaniana ,Aporocidaris incerta ,Aporocidaris milleri ,Aporocidaris usarpi ,Araeosoma coriaceum ,Araeosoma owstoni ,Araeosoma sp. ,Araeosoma thetidis ,Arbacia dufresnii ,Arbacia spatuligera ,Aspidodiadema tonsum ,Austrocidaris canaliculata ,Austrocidaris lorioli ,Austrocidaris pawsoni ,Austrocidaris spinulosa ,Brachysternaster chesheri ,Brisaster antarcticus ,Brisaster edentatus ,Brisaster moseleyi ,Brisaster tasmanicus ,Brissopsis lyrifera ,Brissopsis nsp. ,Brissopsis oldhami ,Brissus agassizii ,Caenopedina alanbakeri ,Caenopedina mirabilis ,Caenopedina novaezealandiae ,Caenopedina otagoensis ,Caenopedina porphyrogigas ,Caenopedina pulchella ,Caenopedina sp. ,Calveriosoma gracile ,Centrostephanus rodgersii ,Ceratophysa ceratopyga ,Clypeaster australasiae ,Clypeaster virescens ,Coelopleurus australis ,Coelopleurus floridanus ,Ctenocidaris aff nutrix ,Ctenocidaris aff. speciosa ,Ctenocidaris aotearoa ,Ctenocidaris geliberti ,Ctenocidaris gigantea ,Ctenocidaris nutrix ,Ctenocidaris pacifica ,Ctenocidaris perrieri ,Ctenocidaris polyplax ,Ctenocidaris rugosa ,Ctenocidaris sp. ,Ctenocidaris speciosa ,Ctenocidaris spinosa ,Cyclaster regalis ,Cystechinus wyvillii ,Cystocrepis cf. setigera ,Cystocrepis new genus ,Delopatagus brucei ,Dermechinus horridus ,Diadema palmeri ,Diadema setosum ,Echinocardium cordatum ,Echinocrepis cuneata ,Echinocyamus platytatus ,Echinolampas crassa ,Echinosigra amphora ,Echinus gilchristi ,Echinus sp. ,Encope emarginata ,Eupatagus valenciennesii ,Evechinus chloroticus ,Fellaster zealandiae ,Fibularia nutriens ,Fibularia plateia ,Genicopatagus affinis ,Goniocidaris clypeata ,Goniocidaris corona ,Goniocidaris florigera ,Goniocidaris impressa ,Goniocidaris parasol ,Goniocidaris sibogae ,Goniocidaris tubaria ,Goniocidaris umbraculum ,Gracilechinus multidentatus ,Gymnopatagus magnus ,Helgocystis carinata ,Heliocidaris erythrogramma ,Heliocidaris tuberculata ,Hemiaster expergitus ,Heterobrissus erinaceus ,Heterobrissus gigas ,Histocidaris australiae ,Histocidaris elegans ,Histocidaris sp. ,Holopneustes inflatus ,Holopneustes porosissimus ,Holopneustes purpurascens ,Hygrosoma luculentum ,Hygrosoma sp. ,Kamptosoma asterias ,Kamptosoma sp. ,Linopneustes brachypetalus ,Loxechinus albus ,Mellita platensis ,Microcyphus annulatus ,Microcyphus compsus ,Microcyphus zigzag ,Moira lethe ,Notocidaris cf lanceolata ,Notocidaris cf. mortenseni ,Notocidaris gaussensis ,Notocidaris hastata ,Notocidaris lanceolata ,Notocidaris mortenseni ,Notocidaris platyacantha ,Notocidaris remigera ,Notocidaris sp. ,Ogmocidaris benhami ,Orechinus monolini ,Pachycentrotus australiae ,Pachycentrotus bajulus ,Paleotrema nsp. ,Paleotrema sp. ,Paramaretia multituberculata ,Paramaretia peloria ,Paramaretia tuberculata ,Peronella hinemoae ,Peronella peronii ,Phormosoma bursarium ,Phormosoma rigidum ,Phormosoma sp. ,Phyllacanthus irregularis ,Phyllacanthus parvispinus ,Pilematechinus vesica ,Plexechinus planus ,Plexechinus sp. ,Plexechinus sulcatus ,Polyechinus agulhensis ,Poriocidaris sp. ,Pourtalesia aurorae ,Pourtalesia debilis ,Pourtalesia hispida ,Pourtalesia laguncula ,Pourtalesia tanneri ,Prionocidaris callista ,Prionocidaris sp. ,Protenaster australis ,Pseudechinus albocinctus ,Pseudechinus flemingi ,Pseudechinus huttoni ,Pseudechinus magellanicus ,Pseudechinus marionis ,Pseudechinus notius ,Pseudechinus novaeamsterdamiae ,Pseudechinus novaezealandiae ,Pseudechinus sancti-pauli ,Pseudoboletia indiana ,Rhopalocidaris gracilis ,Rhopalocidaris sp. ,Rhynchocidaris triplopora ,Salenia pattersoni ,Salenocidaris hastigera ,Salmaciella oligopora ,Solenocystis imitans ,Spatagocystis challengeri ,Spatangus capensis ,Spatangus lutkeni ,Spatangus mathesoni ,Spatangus multispinus ,Spatangus recens ,Spatangus thor ,Sperosoma sp. ,Sterechinus agassizi ,Sterechinus antarcticus ,Sterechinus bernasconiae ,Sterechinus dentifer ,Sterechinus diadema ,Sterechinus neumayeri ,Sterechinus sp ,Sterechinus sp. ,Stereocidaris microtuberculata ,Stereocidaris nsp. ,Stereocidaris sceptriferoides ,Stereocidaris sp. ,Stylocidaris brevicollis ,Stylocidaris conferta ,Stylocidaris reini ,Temnopleurus alexandri ,Temnopleurus michaelseni ,Temnopleurus reevesi ,Tetrapygus niger ,Toxopneustes pileolus ,Tripneustes angulosus ,Tripneustes gratilla ,Tripylaster philippii ,Tripylus abatoides ,Tripylus cordatus ,Tripylus excavatus ,Tripylus reductus ,Tromikosoma sp. ,Urechinus antipodeanus ,Urechinus naresianus
Temporal Coverage
Start Date / End Date1872-01-01 / 2010-01-01
Project Data
TitleMacroecology of Southern Ocean echinoids: Distribution, Biogeography and Ecological Niche Modelling
(Personnel) Name Pierrat Benjamin
(Personnel) Role Author
FundingPhd school E2S Dijon research allowance, CAML/TOTAL, ANR ANTFLOCKS (n°07-BLAN-0213-01), ECOS project (n°C06B02) and BIANZO I and II projects
Study Area DescriptionThe study area covers the Southern Ocean, Sub-Antarctic and cold temperate areas, from the Antarctic continent to 35°S latitude. The aim of the project was to constitute the most complete and consistent echinoid dataset for the Southern Ocean, a vast ocean area that is known for suffering from under-sampling (Griffiths 2010), especially in sectors of East Antarctica, Amundsen and Bellingshausen Seas. The dataset latitudinal range (< 35°S) allows determining possible faunal connections between Antarctic seas and adjacent areas of South America, New Zealand and South Australia.
Design DescriptionThis dataset was developed to determine the current distribution patterns of Antarctic and Sub-Antarctic echinoid species at the scale of the whole Southern Ocean and to highlight the forcing factors that may control them. The ecological niche modelling (ENM) of 19 echinoid species showed that distribution is mainly structured according to two patterns: (1) a first one represented by species that are not limited to the south of the Polar Front and distributed from the Antarctic coasts to the Sub-Antarctic and cold temperate areas, and (2) a second one with species restricted to the Antarctic area. In addition, a similarity analysis of echinoid fauna between bioregions of the Southern Ocean was performed at species and genus levels. The analysis reveals faunal connections between southern South America and Sub-Antarctic areas, interpreted as a result of echinoid paleobiogeographic and evolutionary history. Trans-Antarctic faunal connections were also demonstrated and interpreted as a result of West Antarctic Ice Sheet collapses and setting up of trans-Antarctic seaways during the Pleistocene. Among the environmental parameters that may control echinoid distribution, three parameters seem to be the main forcing factors of echinoid distribution: depth, sea-ice cover and sea surface temperature. However, the respective contributions of these parameters vary among species. Differences are particularly emphasized in the case study of the genus Sterechinus, S. neumayeri being the species the most dependent on environmental conditions that prevail along the Antarctic coasts (sea surface temperature and sea-ice cover), while S. antarcticus does not seem to be so much under the control of these parameters. However, S. antarcticus is not present over the whole area of its potential distribution, what can be explained as the result of either (1) oceanographic factors (role of the Polar Front as a biogeographic barrier), (2) biotic interactions (inter-specific competition) or (3) temporal contingencies (ongoing range expansion).
Sampling Methods
Study ExtentThe study area includes the Antarctic, Sub-Antarctic and cold temperate regions. Five regions are particularly focussed on: (1) the Southern Ocean with the Antarctic Peninsula, the South Orkney Island, the Weddell Sea, Dronning Maud Land, Enderby Land, the Mawson Sea, Adelie Land, the Ross Sea, the Amundsen Sea and the Bellingshausen Sea, (2) the Sub-Antarctic Islands composed of Prince Edward, Crozet, Bouvet, Kerguelen and Heard Islands, (3) the South American coast, with the Argentinean coast, the Clilean coast and the Falkand Island, (4) the New Zealand coast and (5) the South Australian coast inclusive of Tasman coast.
Sampling DescriptionEchinoids were collected during oceanographic cruises led in the Southern Ocean from 1872 to 2003. The database has been upgraded with data collected from 2003 to 2010. Sample depth ranges go from the shoreline to the deep sea. Sampling was performed with different protocols and different gears, specific to each cruise (Agassiz Trawl, Box Core, Beam Trawl, Epibenthic Sledge…). Each echinoid sample was separated at sea from other specimens of the macrofauna, then identified and fixed in formaldehyde for old samples, in 100% ethanol for recent ones.
Quality ControlSystematics reliability and consistency have been checked for by Bruno David, Thomas Saucède and Benjamin Pierrat, identification being based on species descriptions produced by Mortensen (1928, 1935, 1943, 1950, 1951) for Australian, New Zealand and South American species, on Synopses of the Antarctic benthos by David et al. (2005a) for Antarctic species.
Step Description 1see sampling description above
Citation Identifier
Resource Citation The data underpinning analyses of the paper are deposited at GBIF, the Global Biodiversity Information Facility,
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Citation Oyarzún ST, Marín SL, Valladares C, Iriarte, JL (1999). Reproductive cycle of Loxechinus albus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) in two areas of the Magellan Region (53ºS, 70-72ºW), Chile. Scientia Marina 63 (1): 439-449.
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Citation Mortensen T (1928). A monograph of the Echinoidea. Cidaroidea., edn. Reitzel, C.A., Copenhagen.
Citation Mortensen T (1935). A monograph of the Echinoidea. Bothriocidaroidea, Melonechinoidea, Lepidocentrida, Stirodonta, edn. Reitzel C.A., Copenhagen.
Citation Mortensen T (1943). A monograph of the Echinoidea. Camarodonta II, edn. Reitzel, C.A., Copenhagen.
Citation Mortensen T (1950). A monograph of the Echinoidea. Spatangoida I, edn. Reitzel C.A., Copenhagen.
Citation Mortensen T (1951). A monograph of the Echinoidea. Spatangoida II, edn. Reitzel, C.A., Copenhagen.
Citation Tchernia P (1980). Descriptive Physical Oceanography, edn. Pergamon Press, Oxford.
Collection Data
Collection NameAntarctic, Sub-Antarctic and cold temperate echinoid database
Collection IdentifierPierrat Benjamin, David Bruno, Saucede Thomas
Parent Collection IdentifierPierrat Benjamin, David Bruno, Saucede Thomas
Specimen preservation method Alcohol
Additional Metadata
Hierarchy Leveldataset