Integrated Publishing Toolkit(IPT)

free and open access to biodiversity data

Mapping Application for Penguin Populations and Projected Dynamics (MAPPPD): Count data

Latest version published by SCAR - AntOBIS on Oct 19, 2018 SCAR - AntOBIS

MAPPPD ((Mapping Application for Penguin Populations and Projected Dynamics) is a project funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in partnership with Oceanites and the Lab of Dr. Heather Lynch at Stony Brook University. Penguins are some of the most charismatic animals in the world and have captured the imaginations of news-makers, scientists, film producers and the general public. Beyond their general intrinsic value, they are considered important ecosystem indicators. That is to say, monitoring these beautiful species can tell us a lot about the general health of the Antarctic. This is because penguins are top predators, and changes (natural or anthropogenic) which influence the oceanography of the region or prey abundance, will ultimately be detected through changes in distribution or population size. The Antarctic is currently governed by nations which make up the Antarctic Treaty System (ATS). Management strategies designed by the ATS rely on accurate and citable penguin population data in order to mitigate any anthropogenic impacts in the region. However, data on penguin populations are limited primarily due to the fact that most monitored colonies are nearby permanent research stations. This means that any remote populations are essentially ignored during planning processes. Due to advances in remote sensing, modeling and aerial imagery, it is now possible to obtain population estimates for these hard-to-reach sites. MAPPPD aims to deliver population data from four species of penguin to any interested party with the goal of helping support conservation decisions in the Antarctic. We use a combination of highly advanced remote sensing technologies, aerial imagery and field counts to estimate penguin abundance across the entire continent. All of the data in MAPPPD are open access to the general public, and the process is well documented in our white paper report.

Data Records

The data in this occurrence resource has been published as a Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A), which is a standardized format for sharing biodiversity data as a set of one or more data tables. The core data table contains 3,630 records.

This IPT archives the data and thus serves as the data repository. The data and resource metadata are available for download in the downloads section. The versions table lists other versions of the resource that have been made publicly available and allows tracking changes made to the resource over time.

Downloads

Download the latest version of this resource data as a Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A) or the resource metadata as EML or RTF:

Data as a DwC-A file download 3,630 records in English (143 KB) - Update frequency: annually
Metadata as an EML file download in English (55 KB)
Metadata as an RTF file download in English (51 KB)

Versions

The table below shows only published versions of the resource that are publicly accessible.

How to cite

Researchers should cite this work as follows:

Humphries G R, Naveen R, Schwaller M, Che-Castaldo C, McDowall P, Schrimpf M, Lynch H J (2018): Mapping Application for Penguin Populations and Projected Dynamics (MAPPPD): Count data. v1.1. SCAR - AntOBIS. Dataset/Occurrence. http://ipt.biodiversity.aq/resource?r=mapppd_count_data&v=1.1

Rights

Researchers should respect the following rights statement:

The publisher and rights holder of this work is SCAR - AntOBIS. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 License.

GBIF Registration

This resource has been registered with GBIF, and assigned the following GBIF UUID: f7c30fac-cf80-471f-8343-4ec5d8594661.  SCAR - AntOBIS publishes this resource, and is itself registered in GBIF as a data publisher endorsed by Ocean Biogeographic Information System.

Keywords

Occurrence; Ocean; SOUTHERN OCEAN; Continent; Antarctica; Animals/Vertebrates; Birds; Penguins

Contacts

Who created the resource:

Grant R.W. Humphries
Director
Black Bawks Data Science PH32 4DR Fort Augustus GB
http://www.blackbawks.net
R Naveen
Founder
Oceanites PO Box 15259, MD 20825 Chevy Chase US
M. Schwaller
Retired
Mesoscale Atmospheric Processes Laboratory Mail Code 612 MD 20771 Greenbelt Maryland US
C. Che-Castaldo
Post Doctoral Researcher
Department of Ecology and Evolution, Stony Brook University 113 Life Sciences Building NY 11794 Stony Brook US
P. McDowall
PhD student (former)
Department of Ecology and Evolution, Stony Brook University 113 Life Sciences Building NY 11794 Stony Brook US
M. Schrimpf
PhD student
Department of Ecology and Evolution, Stony Brook University 113 Life Sciences Building NY 11794 Stony Brook US
Heather J. Lynch
Principle Investigator
Department of Ecology and Evolution, Stony Brook University 113 Life Sciences Building NY 11794 Stony Brook US

Who can answer questions about the resource:

Grant R.W. Humphries
Director
Black Bawks Data Science PH32 4DR Fort Augustus GB
http://www.blackbawks.net

Who filled in the metadata:

Grant R.W. Humphries
Director
Black Bawks Data Science PH32 4DR Fort Augustus GB
http://www.blackbawks.net

Who else was associated with the resource:

Distributor
Maialen Van de Putte
Science Officer
Royal Belgian Institute for Natural Sciences vautierstraat 29 B-1000 Brussels BE
http://www.biodiversity.aq

Geographic Coverage

Southern Ocean

Bounding Coordinates South West [-90, -180], North East [-60, 180]

Taxonomic Coverage

Data are only collected on the four species of penguin that breed on the Antarctic continent - Macaroni penguin, although breeding on some of the outlying islands, are not included here.

Species  Aptenodytes forsteri (Emperor penguin),  Pygoscelis adéliae (Pygoscelis Adéliae),  Gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis Papua),  Chinstrap penguin (Pygoscelis Antarctica)

Temporal Coverage

Start Date / End Date 1895-01-01 / 2018-01-01

Project Data

The ASI is the only non-governmental science project working in Antarctica and the only project monitoring both penguin and seabird population changes throughout the entirety of the vastly warming Antarctic Peninsula. Over 22 seasons, Oceanites’ Antarctic Site Inventory has made over 1700 site visits and collected data at 223 locations. The changes we’ve been tracking are significant — gentoo penguins increasing their numbers and extending their range southward, while Adélie and chinstrap numbers are in decline across the region. The 2016-17 field season, just concluded, was the ASI's 23rd consecutive season tracking these trends.

Title Antarctic Site Inventory
Identifier Oceanites_ASI
Funding Various
Study Area Description Generally the Western Antarctic Peninsula during tourist season, however the ASI collects data, housed at www.penguinmap.com for all of Antarctica from peer-reviewed articles and reports.
Design Description The ASI uses ships of opportunity where penguin counters are berthed aboard tourist vessels visiting the Antarctic Peninsula. During site visits, penguin counters visit colonies and count nests, chicks, or in rare cases, adults.

The personnel involved in the project:

Principal Investigator
Ron Naveen
Principal Investigator
Heather J. Lynch
Programmer
Grant R.W. Humphries

Sampling Methods

Data on penguin abundance (number of breeding pairs or chicks) and occupancy (presence/absence) form the largest component of MAPPPD’s database. We classify the sources of abundance and occupancy data for MAPPPD into four categories. By far the largest source of abundance and occupancy data currently in theMAPPPD database is the publicly available published literature, which includes both peer-reviewed scientific literature as well as reports, management plans and other ‘grey’ literature. Data contributed through the literature may derive from direct ground surveys, aerial counts, satellite counts or counts from photographs, and the methods associated with each record are included with the data’s metadata. The Antarctic Site Inventory project and publications stemming from it (for example, Lynch and others 2013; Casanovas and others 2015) contribute 41.1% of all the population data in the MAPPPD database; the second biggest contributor is the Landcare Research dataset (http://www.landcareresearch.co.nz/resources/data/adelie-census-data)with 12.3%.All other contributors combined make up the other 46.6% of surveys in MAPPPD for all species. The second category of data are those that are contributed directly to MAPPPD, which may include prepublished survey data or census data collected on an ad hoc or opportunistic basis by professional or citizen scientists in the region. While this is currently a minor component of MAPPPD, we expect this data stream to grow in future iterations of the web application. To ensure consistent quality and metadata for users, data contributed to MAPPPD will be vetted by MAPPPD collaborators before integration. This is a twofold process wherein we first ensure that data being submitted are representative of site-wide counts for the four penguin species in our database and, second, precision estimates are consistent with those already existing in the database. In this way, MAPPPD will serve as a data ‘clearinghouse’ for ad hoc data that may otherwise go unpublished and allows for proper credit to be established for data contributors. The third category of data are those derived from historical sources (for example, aerial photographs) that have not been included in previous census data compilations. Finally, when fully developed, MAPPPD will automatically ingest satellite data from NASA and other imagery providers, extract pixels classified as guano and incorporate those data into the MAPPPD database and, when appropriate, into models for current abundance and forecasts of future abundance. The distribution of survey data by species per year varies greatly and is primarily dominated by the Pygoscelis spp. penguins (Adélie, chinstrap and gentoo).While the number of surveys with chinstrap penguin data have remained roughly consistent over time, the number of surveys with Adélie and gentoo penguin data have decreased and increased, respectively, since the 1980s. This is probably due to an increase in visitation to gentoo penguin colonies on the Antarctic Peninsula, which represent a large and growing proportion of sites visited by passenger vessels (Bender and others 2016). Except for a large effort in 2009, emperor penguins represent the smallest component, reflecting both their smaller population size and the remoteness of their colonies (Fig. 1). However, we expect that as satellites are more frequently being used to estimate colony size for emperor penguins, the number of abundance estimates available for this species will increase in the next decade.

Study Extent Southern Ocean

Method step description:

  1. The database was programmed using Structured Query Language (SQL) using the R programming language as the interface (v 3.2.0; R Core Team, 2015). It consists of 24 tables that are related via several primary key identifier fields. Once population data from the various data sources are processed, they are populated in a table that contains information on the type of count (chicks, nests, adults), quality of the count, date, species counted, and the associated citation. The table structure and procedures for version control we have adopted allows us to trace the analysis process in a transparent fashion. The population model framework then creates estimates of current populations with corresponding credible intervals, and generates forecasts for the abundance at any breeding population or in any user-defined collection of breeding locations. MAPPPD has been designed for ease of use by the management community and as a mechanism for open source development, testing, and benchmarking of population models to support Antarctic science and management. All sites in MAPPPD are intended to represent one biologically relevant population separated, except through occasional migration, to populations at other "sites". The delineation of geographic areas as a “site” is largely consistent with historical precedent (e.g., Croxall and Kirkwood 1979, Woehler 1993, Lynch and LaRue 2014), including in cases where several small islands have been combined to a single “site”. This was done so that historical survey data could be used for more complete population time series. We have used the names that have been historically associated with each site, though we have eliminated synonymous names and merged the associated time series where required. We have also renamed sites as needed to correct previous naming errors (based on, for example, an incorrectly identified geographic feature). Data on penguin abundance (number of breeding pairs or chicks) and occupancy (presence/absence) form the largest component of MAPPPD’s database. We classify the sources of abundance and occupancy data for MAPPPD into four categories. By far the largest source of abundance and occupancy data currently in the MAPPPD database is the publicly available published literature, which includes both peer reviewed scientific literature as well as reports, management plans, and other “gray” literature. Data contributed through the literature may derive from direct ground surveys, aerial counts, satellite counts, or counts from photographs, and the methods associated with each record are included with the data’s metadata. Quality flags, following the precedent set by Croxall and Kirkwood (1979) and other compilations of penguin census data, are included with all data records so end users can filter by count accuracy. Quality flags of 1 are those of the highest accuracy (e.g., recent ground counts that are site-wide), while flags of 5 are those of the lowest (e.g., estimates from satellite data or modeled output). The Antarctic Site Inventory project and publications stemming from it (e.g., Lynch et al. 2013, Casanovas et al. 2015) contribute 41.1% of all the population data in the MAPPPD database; the second biggest contributor is the Landcare Research dataset (http://www.landcareresearch.co.nz/resources/data/adelie-census-data) with 12.3%. All other contributors combined make up the other 46.6% of surveys in MAPPPD for all species. The second category of data are those that are contributed directly to MAPPPD, which may include pre-published survey data or census data collected on an ad hoc or opportunistic basis by professional or citizen scientists in the region. While this is currently a minor component of MAPPPD, we expect this data stream to grow in future iterations of the web application. To ensure consistent quality and metadata for users, data contributed to MAPPPD will be vetted by MAPPPD collaborators before integration. This is a two-fold process wherein we first ensure that data being submitted are representative of site-wide counts for the four penguin species in our database, and second, precision estimates are consistent with those already existing in the database. In this way, MAPPPD will serve as a data clearinghouse for ad hoc data that may otherwise go unpublished and allows for proper credit to be established for data contributors. The third category of data are those derived from historical sources (e.g., aerial photographs) that have not been included in previous census data compilations. Finally, when fully developed, MAPPPD will automatically ingest satellite data from NASA and other imagery providers, extract pixels classified as guano (Fretwell et al. 2012, Larue et al. 2014, Lynch and Larue 2014, Lynch and Schwaller 2014, Witharana and Lynch 2016), and incorporate those data into the MAPPPD database and, when appropriate, into models for current abundance and forecasts of future abundance. The distribution of survey data by species per year varies greatly and is primarily dominated by the Pygoscelis spp. penguins (Adélie, Chinstrap and Gentoo). While the number of surveys with Chinstrap penguin data have remained roughly consistent over time, the number of surveys with Adélie and Gentoo penguin data have decreased and increased, respectively, since the 1980s. This is likely due to an increase in visitation to Gentoo penguin colonies on the Antarctic Peninsula, which represent a large and growing proportion of sites visited by passenger vessels (Bender et al. 2016). Save for a large effort in 2009, Emperor penguins represent the smallest component, reflecting both their smaller population size and the remoteness of their colonies (Fig 1). However, we expect that as satellites are more frequently being used to estimate colony size for Emperor penguins, the number of abundance estimates available for this species will increase in the next decade. Population models On the front end, the user can query the database and models by individual colonies, groups of colonies, species, region, or user defined polygons (Fig 1). Estimates of population size are delivered as graphical outputs that can be downloaded in a variety of formats. MAPPPD's underlying population model generates Bayesian posterior distributions (i.e. the statistical distribution associated with predictions of the number of nests as a colony) for the number of breeding pairs (i.e. number of nests) in each colony (known to exist) in each year since 1982. An initial model has been developed to illustrate the functions available for display and download of results; the details of which will be distributed in a public Github repository. When complete, MAPPPD will include tools for community-contributed population models; the suite of models available within MAPPPD will facilitate the creation and display of ensemble model predictions and models will be compared each year in terms of their predictive performance as new data become available. Since the model development toolkit is still undergoing development, users are encouraged to interpret the displayed results with caution (i.e., although general trends will remain the same, be aware that results are likely to vary in the final version); downloaded results will be associated with metadata on the versions of each model included. Bayesian posteriors are summed across selected sites for each year to give a population estimate for the entire user query. Population model predictions within MAPPPD use the median, rather than the mean, of the posterior distribution for each year, because it provides a more sensible measure of central tendency for right skew distributions. Uncertainty is communicated through the display of 90th percentile highest posterior density credible intervals. For example, if the model output says that the Adélie penguin population at Petermann Island is 939 (416-1,482) breeding pairs, we would say that there is a 90% probability that the true abundance of Adélie penguins at Peterman Island was between 416 and 1,482 breeding pairs, and that there was an equal probability that the true count was greater than 939 and that it was less than 939. Occupancy models Occupancy, or the presence of species at a site, can be measured in different ways, such as whether a species is ever physically present at a site and whether a species uses a site as a breeding location. MAPPPD uses a series of Bayesian single-species multistate occupancy models to simultaneously calculate both an annual probability of presence and probability of breeding for 16 breeding bird species (Schrimpf et al., in review). These models currently use presence/absence data from ground surveys by the Antarctic Site Inventory at 181 sites throughout the Antarctic Peninsula, South Shetland Islands, and South Orkney Islands, from 1995 – 2015 (Naveen and Lynch 2011). Future research will allow other survey types, including citizen-science bird checklists such as those submitted to eBird (Sullivan et al. 2009), to inform these models. Modeling both presence and breeding as probabilities is necessary to account for uncertainty in the survey process. Multistate occupancy models incorporate probability of non-detection for each state, and accommodate the possibility that a survey missed evidence of breeding and/or presence during a visit. Probability of presence is useful for MAPPPD users who wish to create a list of species most likely to be seen at a site, while probability of breeding is most useful for assessing the chance that flying bird species with cryptic nesting habitats (e.g., storm petrels) may be using a site for reproduction. Though Bayesian occupancy modeling is still relatively new, similar models have been adapted to suit different needs (e.g. MacKenzie et al. 2009, Bailey et al. 2014). The models constructed for MAPPPD currently incorporate site-specific November sea-ice concentration averaged across all years as an environmental covariate, and previous-state (i.e., previous population estimate) as a biological covariate, which help to estimate occupancy for sites with very few data. On the front end, MAPPPD displays the probability of each species either being present, or present and breeding, which can be collapsed to a simpler checklist of birds likely to be present and/or breeding at a site. These probabilities are influenced by direct observation at the site in question, as well as by the statistically-estimated relationship between occupancy status and environmental conditions, the latter of which allows us to estimate the probability of occupancy for sites with known site characteristics even if no survey data has been collected.

Bibliographic Citations

  1. (ATCM) ANTARCTIC TREATY CONSULTATIVE MEETING 2002. Management plan for Antarctic Specially Protected Area No. 117: Avian Island Marguerite Bay Antarctic Peninsula. Measure 1 Final Report of the Thirty-second Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting Warsaw Poland.
  2. (ATCM) ANTARCTIC TREATY CONSULTATIVE MEETING 2008. Designation of Antarctic Specially Managed Area No. 7: Southwest Anvers island and Palmer Basin. Measure 1 Final Report of the Thirty-first Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting Kyiv Ukraine.
  3. (ATCM) ANTARCTIC TREATY CONSULTATIVE MEETING 2009a. Management plan for Antarctic Specially Protected Area No. 113: Litchfield Island Arthur Harbor Anvers Island Palmer Archipelago. Measure 4 Final Report of the Thirty-second Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting Baltimore United States.
  4. (ATCM) ANTARCTIC TREATY CONSULTATIVE MEETING, 2009b. Management plan for Antarctic Specially Protected Area No. 125: Fildes Peninsula, King George Island (25 De Mayo), (Fossil Hill, Holz Stream (Madera Stream), Glacier Dome Bellingshausen (Collins Glacier), Halfthree Point, Suffield Point, Fossil Point, Gradzinski Cove And Skua Cove). Measure 6, Final Report of the Thirty-second Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting, Baltimore, United States.
  5. (ATCM) ANTARCTIC TREATY CONSULTATIVE MEETING 2009c. Management plan for Antarctic Specially Protected Area No. 150: Ardley Island Maxwell Bay King George Island (25 De Mayo). Measure 9 Final Report of the Thirty-second Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting Baltimore United States.
  6. (ATCM) ANTARCTIC TREATY CONSULTATIVE MEETING 2014a. Management plan for Antarctic Specially Protected Area No. 139: Biscoe Point Anvers Island Palmer Archipelago. Measure 6 Final Report of the Thirty-seventh Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting Brasilia Brasil.
  7. (ATCM) ANTARCTIC TREATY CONSULTATIVE MEETING 2014b. Management plan for Antarctic Specially Protected Area No. 171: 4 Narębski Point Barton Peninsula King George Island. Measure 11 Final Report of the Thirty-second Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting Brasilia Brasil.
  8. Aguirre C. A. 1995. Distribution and abundance of birds at Potter Peninsula 25 de Mayo (King George) Island South Shetland Islands Antarctica. Marine Ornithology 23:23-31.
  9. Aguirre C. A. and J. M. Acero 1995. Distribution and abundance of birds in the Errera Channel Antarctic Peninsula during the 1992/93 breeding season. Marine Ornithology 23:129-134.
  10. Ainley D. G. 2002. The Adélie penguin: Bellwether of climate change. Columbia University Press New York United States.
  11. Ainley D. G. R. C. Wood and W. J. L. Sladen 1978. Bird life at Cape Crozier Ross Island. The Wilson Bulletin 90:492-510.
  12. Antarctic Ecosystem Research Group 1999. AMLR 1998/99 Field Season Report: Objectives accomplishments and tentative conclusions. Technical report National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration La Jolla United States.
  13. Antarctic Ecosystem Research Group 2001a. AMLR 1999/2000 Field Season Report: Objectives accomplishments and tentative conclusions. Technical report National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration La Jolla United States.
  14. Antarctic Ecosystem Research Group 2001b. AMLR 2000/2001 Field Season Report: Objectives accomplishments and tentative conclusions. Technical report National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration La Jolla United States.
  15. Antarctic Ecosystem Research Group 2003a. AMLR 2001/2002 Field Season Report: Objectives accomplishments and tentative conclusions. Technical report National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration La Jolla United States. 4
  16. Antarctic Ecosystem Research Group 2003b. AMLR 2002/2003 Field Season Report: Objectives accomplishments and tentative conclusions. Technical report National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration La Jolla United States.
  17. Antarctic Ecosystem Research Group 2004. AMLR 2003/2004 Field Season Report: Objectives accomplishments and tentative conclusions. Technical report National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration La Jolla United States.
  18. Antarctic Ecosystem Research Group 2005. AMLR 2004/2005 Field Season Report: Objectives accomplishments and tentative conclusions. Technical report National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration La Jolla United States.
  19. Antarctic Ecosystem Research Group 2006. AMLR 2005/2006 Field Season Report: Objectives accomplishments and tentative conclusions. Technical report National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration La Jolla United States.
  20. Antarctic Ecosystem Research Group 2007. AMLR 2006/2007 Field Season Report: Objectives accomplishments and tentative conclusions. Technical report National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration La Jolla United States.
  21. Antarctic Ecosystem Research Group 2008. AMLR 2007/2008 Field Season Report: Objectives accomplishments and tentative conclusions. Technical report National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration La Jolla United States.
  22. Antarctic Ecosystem Research Group 2009. AMLR 2008/2009 Field Season Report: Objectives accomplishments and tentative conclusions. Technical report National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration La Jolla United States.
  23. Antarctic Ecosystem Research Group 2011. AMLR 2009/2010 Field Season Report: Objectives accomplishments and tentative conclusions. Technical report National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration La Jolla United States. 8
  24. Antarctic Ecosystem Research Group 2013. 25 November 2013 weekly field reports: Copacabana King George Island. Technical Report 1 National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration La Jolla United States.
  25. Antarctic Ecosystem Research Group 2014a. 13 January 2014 weekly field reports: Copacabana King George Island. Technical Report 2 National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration La Jolla United States.
  26. Antarctic Ecosystem Research Group 2014b. 20 January 2014 weekly field reports: Copacabana King George Island. Technical Report 3 National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration La Jolla United States.
  27. Antarctic Ecosystem Research Group 2014c. AMLR 2010-2011 Field Season Report. Technical report National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration La Jolla United States.
  28. Antarctic Ecosystem Research Group 1998. AMLR 1997/98 Field Season Report: Objectives accomplishments and tentative conclusions. Technical report National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration La Jolla United States.
  29. Bo; M.S. and S. Copello 2001. Distribution and abundance of breeding birds at Deception Island South Shetland Islands Antarctica February to April 2000. Marine Ornithology 29:39-42.
  30. Bannasch R. and R. Odening 1981. Zoologische untersuchungen im gebiet der sowjetischen Antarktisstation Bellingshausen. Geodatische und geophysikalische Veroffentlichungen 8:3-20.
  31. Barbosa A. and H. J. Lynch Personal communication between Adres Barbosa and Heather Lynch. personal communication.
  32. Barbraud C. K. C. Delord T. Micol and P. Jouventin 1999. First census of breeding seabirds between Cap Bienvenue (Terre Adélie) and Moyes Islands (King George V Land) Antarctica: New records for Antarctic seabird populations. Polar Biology 21:146-150.
  33. Bassett J. A. E. J. Woehler P. H. Ensor K. R. Kerry and G. W. Johnstone 1990. Adélie penguins and Antarctic petrels at Mount Biscoe Western Enderby Land Antarctica. Emu 90:58.
  34. Borowicz A. P. McDowall C. Youngflesh T. Sayre-McCord G. Clucas R. Herman S. Forrest M. Rider M. Schwaller T. Hart S. Jenouvrier M. Polito H. Singh and H. J. Lynch 2018. Multi-modal survey of Adélie penguin mega-colonies reveals the Danger Islands as a seabird hotspot. Scientific Reports 8:3926.
  35. British Antarctic Survey ???? British Antarctic Survey. dataset.
  36. Burley M. and A.G.E. Jones 1972. Joint services expedition to the Elephant Group Islands 1976-1977. monograph.
  37. Cardé J. 2015. Adélie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) population trends in Cape Bird Antarctica 1956-2009: A response to climate change competitive release and commercial fishing. undergraduate thesis.
  38. Carlini A. R. N. R. Coria M. M. Santos J. Negrete M. A. Juares and G. A. Daneri 2009. Responses of Pygoscelis adeliae and P. papua populations to environmental changes at Isla 25 de Mayo (King George Island). Polar Biology 32:1427-1433.
  39. Casanovas P. R. Naveen S. Forrest J. Poncet and H. J. Lynch 2015. A comprehensive coastal seabird survey maps out the front lines of ecological change on the western Antarctic Peninsula. Polar Biology 38:927-940.
  40. Ciaputa P. and K. Sierakowski 1999. Long-term population changes of Adélie chinstrap and gentoo penguins in the regions of SSSI No. 8 and SSSI No. 34 King George Island Antarctica. Polish Polar Research 20:355-365. 5
  41. Clarke J. L. Emmerson A. Townsend and K. R. Kerry 2003. Demographic characteristics of the Adélie penguin population on Béchervaise Island after 12 years of study. CCAMLR Science 10: 53-74.
  42. Coria N. R. D. Montalti E. F. Rombola M. M. Santos M. I. Garcia Betono and M. A. Juares 2011. Birds at Laurie Island South Orkney Islands Antarctica: Breeding species and their distribution. Marine Ornithology 39:207-213.
  43. Coria N. R. M. Favero M. P. Silva and R. J. Casaux 1995a. Breeding birds at Duthoit Point Nelson Island South Shetland Islands Antarctica. Marine Ornithology 23:61-64.
  44. Croxall J. P. D. M. Rootes and R. A. Price 1981. Increases in penguin populations at Signy Island South Orkney Islands. British Antarctic Survey Bulletin 54:47-56.
  45. Croxall J. P. and E. D. Kirkwood 1979. The distribution of penguins on the Antarctic Penninulsa and islands of the Scotia Sea. British Antarctic Survey Cambridge United Kingdom.
  46. Dunn M.J. Jackson J.A. Adlard S. Lynnes A.S. Briggs D.R. Fox D. C.M. Waluda. 2016. Population size and decadal trends of three penguin species nesting at Signy island South Orkney islands. PLoS ONE 11(10): e0164025.
  47. Ensor P. H. and J. A. Bassett 1987. The breeding status of Adélie penguins and other birds on the coast of George V Land Antarctica volume 50 of ANARE Research Notes. Antarctic Division Department of Science and Technology Kingston Australia.
  48. Esponda C. G. N. R. Coria and D. Montalti 2000. Breeding birds at Halfmoon Island South Shetland Islands Antarctica 1995/96. Marine Ornithology 28:59-62.
  49. Favero M. N. R. Coria and M. P. Beron 2000. The status of breeding birds at Cierva Point and surroundings Danco Coast Antarctic Peninsula. Polish Polar Research 21:181-187.
  50. Fraser W. R. ????b. Adélie penguin breeding success and chronology studies - relative abundance of one and two chick broods collected at Palmer Station Antarctica research area 1991 - present. dataset.
  51. Fretwell P. T. M. A. LaRue P. Morin G. L. Kooyman B. Wienecke N. Ratcliffe A. J. Fox A. H. Fleming C. Porter and P. N. Trathan 2012. An emperor penguin population estimate: The first global synoptic survey of a species from space. PLoS ONE 7:e33751.
  52. Gonzalez-Zevallos D. M. M. Santos E. F. Rombolo; M. A. Juares and N. R. Coria 2013. Abundance and breeding distribution of seabirds in the northern part of the Danco Coast Antarctic Peninsula. Polar Research 32:1-7.
  53. Hahn S. H.-U. Peter P. Quillfeldt and K. Reinhardt 1998. The birds of the Potter Peninsula King George Island South Shetland Islands Antarctica 1965-1998. Marine Ornithology 26:1-6.
  54. Heimark G. M. and R. J. Heimark 1988. Observations of birds and marine mammals at Palmer Station November 1985 to November 1986. Antarctic Journal of the United States 23:14-17.
  55. Horne R. S. C. 1983. The distribution of penguin breeding colonies on the Australian Antarctic Territory Heard Island the McDonald Islands and Macquarie Island volume 9 of ANARE Research Notes. Antarctic Division Department of Science and Technology Kingston Australia. 7
  56. Hoshiai T. T. Sweda and A. Tanimura 1984. Adélie penguin census in the 1981-82 and 1982-1983 breeding seasons near Syowa Station Antarctica [Special Issue]. Memoirs of National Institute of Polar Research 32:117-121.
  57. Hucke-Gaete R. D. Torres and V. Vallejos 1997. Population size and distribution of Pygoscelis Antarctica and P. papua at Cape Shirreff Livingston Island Antarctica (1996/97 Season). 62 Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources San Diego United States. 7
  58. Ishikawa S. O. Matsuda and K. Kawagushi 1988. Adélie penguin census in the 1984-85 breeding season near Syowa Station Antarctica with reference to the banding effect on the population. Antarctic Record 32:302-307.
  59. Jablonski B. 1984a. Distribution and numbers of penguins in the region of King George Island (South Shetland Islands in the breeding season 1980/1981*). Polish Polar Research 5:17-30.
  60. Jablonski B. 1984b. Distribution number and breeding preferences of penguins in the region of the Admiralty Bay (King George Islands South Shetland Islands in the season 1979/80*). Polish Polar Research 5:5-16.
  61. Jehl J. R. and F. S. Todd 1985. A census of the Adélie penguin colony on Paulet Island Weddell Sea. Antarctic Journal of the United States 20:171-172.
  62. Juares M. A. M. M. Santos J. Negrete J. A. Mennucci P. J. Perchivale R. J. Casaux and N. R. Coria 2015. Adélie penguin population changes at Stranger Point: 19 years of monitoring. Antarctic Science 27:455-461.
  63. Kato A. and Y. Ropert-Coudert 2006. Rapid increase in Adélie penguin populations in the L&#252tzow-Holm Bay area since the mid 1990s. Polar Bioscience 20: 55-62.
  64. Kato A. and H. Ichikawa 1999. Breeding status of Adélie and emperor penguins in the Mt. Riiser-Larsen area Amundsen Bay. Polar Bioscience 12:36-39.
  65. Kooyman G.L. and P.J. Ponganis 2016. Rise and fall of Ross Sea emperor penguin colony populations: 2000 to 2012. Antarctic Science 29:201-208.
  66. Korczak-Abshire M. M. Wegrzyn P. J. Angiel and M. Lisowska 2013. Pygoscelid penguins breeding distribution and population trends at Lions Rump rookery King George Island. Polish Polar Research 34:87-99.
  67. Law P. 1962. New ANARE landings in Australian Antarctic Territory 1960. Geographical Journal 128:174-183.
  68. Low M. L. Meyer and C. Southwell 2007. Number and distribution of Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) breeding sites in the Robinson Group of islands Mac.Robertson Land coast east Antarctica. Polar Record 43:225-229.
  69. Lynch H. J. ????a. Antarctic Site Inventory. dataset.
  70. Lynch H. J. R. Naveen and P. Casanovas 2013. Antarctic Site Inventory breeding bird survey data 1994-2013: Ecological Archives E094-243. Ecology 94:2653-2653.
  71. Lynch H. J. W. F. Fagan and R. Naveen 2010. Population trends and reproductive success at a frequently visited penguin colony on the western Antarctic Peninsula. Polar Biology 33:493-503.
  72. Lynch H. J. and M. A. LaRue 2014. First global census of the Adélie Penguin. The Auk 131:457-466.
  73. Lynch H. J. and M. R. Schwaller 2014. Mapping the abundance and distribution of Adélie penguins using Landsat-7: First steps towards an integrated multi-sensor pipeline for tracking populations at the continental scale. PLoS ONE 9:e113301.
  74. Lyver P. O. ???? Adélie census data. dataset.
  75. Müller-Schwarze C. and D. Müller-Schwarze 1975. A survey of twentyfour rookeries of pygoscelid penguins in the Antarctic Peninsula region. In B. Stonehouse editor The biology of penguins pages 309-320. University Park Press Baltimore United States.
  76. Macdonald J. A. K. J. Barton and P. Metcalf 2002. Chinstrap penguins (Pygoscelis antarctica) nesting on Sabrina Islet Balleny Islands Antarctica.
  77. Micol T. and P. Jouventin 2001. Long-term population trends in seven Antarctic seabirds at Pointe Géologie (Terre Adélie) Human impact compared with environmental change. Polar Biology 24:175-185.
  78. Myrcha A. 1993. Birds. In S. Rakusa-Suszczewski editor The maritime Antarctic coastal ecosystem of Admiralty Bay pages 129-141. Department of Antarctic Biology Polish Academy of Sciences Warsaw Poland.
  79. Myrcha A. A. Tatur and R. d. Valle 1987. Numbers of Adélie penguins breeding at Hope Bay and Seymour Island rookeries (West Antarctica) in 1985. Polish Polar Research 8:411-422.
  80. Naveen R. H. J. Lynch S. Forrest T. Mueller and M. Polito 2012. First direct site-wide penguin survey at Deception Island Antarctica suggests significant declines in breeding chinstrap penguins. Polar Biology 35:1879-1888.
  81. Naveen R. and H. J. Lynch ???? Personal communication between Ron Naveen and Heather Lynch. personal communication.
  82. Parmalee D. F. and C. C. Rimmer 1987. Revised penguin numbers and distributions for Anvers Island Antarctica. British Antarctic Survey Bulletin 76:65-73.
  83. Peter, H-U., R. Bannasch, A. Bick, A. Gebauer, M. Kaiser, R. Mönke, and D. Zippel, 1989. Bestand und Reproduktion ausgewählter antarktischer Vögel und Robben im Siidwestteil von King George Island, South Shetland Islands. Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift: Naturwissenschaftliche Reihe 38:645-657.
  84. Petry M.V. F.C.L. Valls E.S. Petersen J.V.G. Finger and L. Krüger. 2018. Population trends of seabirds at Stinker Point Elephant Island Maritime Antarctica. Antarctic Science doi: 10.1017/S0954102018000135.
  85. Pfeiffer S. and H.-U. Peter 2004. Ecological studies toward the management of an Antarctic tourist landing site (Penguin Island South Shetland Islands). Polar Record 40:345-353.
  86. Phillips R. and H. J. Lynch ???? Personal communication between Richard Phillips and Heather Lynch. personal communication.
  87. Poncet S. and J. Poncet 1985. A survey of penguin breeding populations at the South Orkey Islands. British Antarctic Survey Bulletin 68:71-81.
  88. Poncet S. and J. Poncet 1987. Censuses of penguin populations of the Antarctic Peninsula 1983-1987. British Antarctic Survey Bulletin 77:109- 129.
  89. Pylypenko D. V. 2013. Colonial bird species nesting in the UAS AREA Vernadsky (2010-2011). Ukrainian Antarkticka Journal 12:206-216.
  90. Quintana R. D. V. Cirelli and J. L. Orgeira 2000. Abundance and spatial distribution of bird populations at Cierva Point Antarctic Peninsula. Marine Ornithology 28:21-27.
  91. Robertson C. J. R. J. R. Gilbert and A. W. Erickson 1980. Birds and seals of the Balleny Islands Antarctica. National Museum of New Zealand Records 1:271-279.
  92. Robertson G. 1991. Kidson Island: A breeding site for Antarctic fulmars. Polar Record 27:61-61.
  93. Sander M. T. C. Balbao E. S. Costa C. R. Dos Santos and M. V. Petry 2007. Decline of the breeding population of Pygoscelis Antarctica and Pygoscelis adeliae on Penguin Island South Shetland Antarctica. Polar Biology 30:651-654.
  94. Shuford W. D. and B. Spear 1988. Surveys of breeding Chinstrap penguins in the South Shetland Island Antarctica. British Antarctic Survey Bulletin 81:19-30.
  95. Silva M. P. M. Favero R. J. Casaux and A. Baroni 1998. The status of breeding birds at Harmony Point Nelson Island Antarctica in summer 1995/96. Marine Ornithology 26:75-78.
  96. Southwell C. and L. Emmerson 2013. First population counts at newly discovered Adélie penguin Pygoscelis adeliae breeding sites along the Wilhelm II Queen Mary and Wilkes Land coastlines East Antarctica. Marine Ornithology 41:87-89. 5
  97. Starck W. 1980. The avifauna of Haswell Island (East Antarctica) in the summer of 1978/1979. Polish Polar Research 1:183-196.
  98. Taylor R. H. P. R. Wilson and B. W. Thomas 1990. Status and trends of Adélie penguin populations in the Ross Sea region. Polar Record 26:293- 304.
  99. Tidemann S.C. A. Walleyn and J. F. Ryan 2015. Observations of penguins and other pelagic bird species in the Balleny Islands Antarctica. Australian Field Ornithology 32:169.
  100. Trathan P. N. F. H. J. Daunt and E. J. Murphy editors 1996. South Georgia: An ecological atlas. British Antarctic Survey Cambridge United Kingdom.
  101. Trathan P. N. P. T. Fretwell and B. Stonehouse 2011. First recorded loss of an emperor penguin colony in the recent period of Antarctic regional warming: Implications for other colonies. PLoS ONE 6:e14738.
  102. Trivelpiece W. Z. S. G. Trivelpiece G. R. Geupal J. Kjelmyr and N. J. Volkman 1990. Adélie and chinstrap penguins: Their potential as monitors of the southern ocean marine ecosystem. In K. R. Kerry and G. Hempel editors Antarctic ecosystems. Ecologic change and conservation pages 191-202. Springer-Verlag Berlin Germany. 5
  103. Trivelpiece W. Z. and H. J. Lynch ???? Personal communication between Wayne Trivelpiece and Heather Lynch. personal communication.
  104. Whitehead M. D. and G. W. Johnstone 1990. The distribution and estimated abundance of Adélie penguins breeding in Prydz Bay Antarctica. In M. Fukuchi Y. Ino Y. Naito Y. Ohyama and M. Takahashi editors Proceedings of the NIPR Symposium on Polar Biology volume 3 pages 91-98 Tokyo Japan. National Institute of Polar Research.
  105. Wilson D. R. Pike D. Southwell and C. Southwell 2009. A systematic survey of breeding Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) along the Mawson and Kemp Land coasts East Antarctica: New colonies and population counts. Antarctic Science 21:591-592.
  106. Wilson G. 1983. Distribution and abundance of Antarctic and sub- Antarctic penguins: A synthesis of current knowledge volume 4 of BIOMASS Scientific Series. Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) Cambridge United Kingdom.
  107. Woehler E. J. 1993. The distribution and abundance of Antarctic and Subantarctic penguins. Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) Cambridge United Kingdom. https://www.scar.org/library/scar-publications/occasional-publications/3513-the-distribution-and-abundance-of-antarctic-and-subantarctic-penguins/file/
  108. Woehler E. J. 2000. Status and trends of Antarctic and Subantarctic penguins. supplement.
  109. Woehler E. J. D. J. Slip L. M. Robertson P. J. Fullagar and H. R. Burton 1991. The distribution abundance and status of Adélie penguins Pygoscelis adeliae at the Windmill Islands Wilkes Land Antarctica. Marine Ornithology 19:1-18. http://www.marineornithology.org/PDF/19/MO_1991_01.pdf
  110. Woehler E. J. and J. P. Croxall 1997. The status and trends of Antarctic and sub-Antarctic seabirds. Marine Ornithology 25:43-66. http://www.marineornithology.org/PDF/25/25_8.pdf
  111. Woehler E. J. and N. Cobley ???? Personal communication between Eric Woehler and Norm Cobbley. personal communication.

Additional Metadata

Marine, harvested by OBIS

Purpose To provide open access penguin population census data to the general public.
Maintenance Description Maintenance on the website and database is ongoing with annual updates to numbers.
Alternative Identifiers f7c30fac-cf80-471f-8343-4ec5d8594661
http://ipt.biodiversity.aq/resource?r=mapppd_count_data