PolE At Sea Observations of Birds and Marine Mammals during PS 81 (ANT-XXIX/4)
During the PS81 (ANT-XXIX/4) expedition of icebreaking RV Polarstern from Punta Arenas to the North Scotia Sea Ridge, South Georgia, and the South Sandwich Trench and back to the Falkland Islands from 22 March till 26 April 2013, three independent datasets were collected in order to establish the quantitative at-sea distribution of marine mammals and seabirds.
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Antarctica; Occurrence; Seabirds; Marine mammals; BIRDS; MAMMALS; MARINE HABITAT; SOUTHERN OCEAN; ANTARCTICA; Occurrence; Observation
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Punta Arenas to the North Scotia Sea Ridge, South Georgia, and the South Sandwich Trench and back to the Falkland Islands/islas Malvinas
|Bounding Coordinates||South West [-60, -66], North East [-53, -24]|
Birds and Mammals
|Species||Aptenodytes patagonicus (King Penguin), Pygoscelis papua (Gentoo Penguin), Pygoscelis antarcticus (Chinstrap Penguin), Eudyptes chrysolophus (Macaroni Penguin), Spheniscidae (Penguin sp.), Eudyptes chrysocome (Rockhopper Penguin), Thalassarche chrysostoma (Grey-headed Albatross), Thalassarche melanophris (Black-browed Albatross), Phoebetria fusca (Sooty Albatross), Phoebetria palpebrata (Light-mantled Albatross), Diomedea epomophora (Royal Albatross (Southern)), Diomedea exulans (Wandering Albatross), Diomedea (Royal/Wandering Albatross), Macronectes giganteus (Southern Giant-Petrel), Macronectes halli (Northern Giant-Petrel), Macronectes (Giant-Petrel sp.), Fulmarus glacialoides (Southern Fulmar), Daption capense (Cape Petrel), Oceanites oceanicus (Wilson s Storm-Petrel), Hydrobatidae (Storm-Petrel sp.), Garrodia nereis (Grey-backed Storm-Petrel), Fregetta tropica (Black-bellied Storm-Petrel), Pelecanoides urinatrix (Common Diving-Petrel), Pelecanoididae (Diving-Petrel sp.), Phalacrocorax atriceps georgianus (South Georgia Shag), Bubulcus ibis (Cattle Egret), Chionis albus (Snowy Sheathbill), Phalarope sp., Sterna vittata (Antarctic Tern), Stercorarius antarcticus (Brown skua), Arctocephalus (Fur Seal sp.), Mirounga leonina (Southern Elephant Seal), Phocidae (Seal sp.), Lagenorhynchus cruciger (Hourglass dolphin), Orcinus orca (Killer whale), Balaenoptera physalus (Fin Whale), Eubalaena australis (Southern Right Whale), Megaptera novaeangliae (Humpback Whale)|
|Start Date / End Date||2013-05-22 / 2013-04-26|
Transect counts were devoted to seabird and marine mammal observation. The transect counts were lasting half an hour, without width limitation from the bridge at 18 m above sea level on a continuous basis, light and visibility allowing (see description and discussion in Joiris 2007 ; Joiris and Falck 2010 ). The animals were detected with the naked eye, and observations confirmed and complemented with binoculars (10 9 42) when useful; photographic documents were also used, especially for species difficult to identify. Results are presented as basic unmodified data, i.e. numbers encountered per half-an-hour transect count. Density was also calculated on the basis of specific detection limits established by this team in function of size, colour and behaviour (jizz) (Joiris 2007 ; Joiris and Falck 2010 ) and mean ship’s speed: 10 knots in open water and 5 knots in ice covered areas. Water temperature and salinity were continuously recorded on board Polarstern with a thermo-salinometer at subsurface sampling (keel - 10 m). Ice cover was evaluated by us from the bridge and expressed as % coverage within an approximate range of 500 m around the ship.
|Study Extent||Southern Ocean, Antarctica|
Method step description:
- Joiris CR (2007) At-sea distribution of seabirds and marine mammals in the Greenland and Norwegian seas: impact of extremely low ice coverage. In: Symposium European research on polar environment and climate, Brussels, 5–6 March 2007
- Joiris CR, Falck E (2010) Summer at-sea distribution of little auks Alle alle and harp seals Pagophilus (Phoca) groenlandica in the Fram Strait and the Greenland Sea: impact of small-scale hydrological events. Polar Biol 34:541–548. doi: 10.1007/ s00300-010-0910-0
- Joiris CR, Humphries GRW, D’Hert D, Lafontaine R-M, Robert H and Beudels-Jamar RC. 2015. Major hotspots detected along the Scotia Ridge in autumn for southern right whales Eubalaena australis, Antarctic fur seals Arctocephalus gazella and Antarctic prions Pachyptila desolata. Adv. Polar Sc. 26
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