Registros biológicos

Sea spiders (Arthropoda, Pycnogonida) from ten recent research expeditions to the Antarctic Peninsula, Scotia Arc and Weddell Sea - data

Última versión Publicado por SCAR - AntOBIS en 14 de diciembre de 2021 SCAR - AntOBIS
Fecha de publicación:
14 de diciembre de 2021
Published by:
CC-BY 4.0

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The dataset contains information on specimens of Southern Ocean Pycnogonida (Arthropoda), that were collected from 10 different research cruises, spanning 13 years. The individual aims and objectives of each cruise can be found in their cruise reports. The specimens have been collated into a single dataset, forming the basis of J Maxwell’s PhD. The dataset will be used to investigate the community structure of Antarctic pycnogonids and the factors which influence its composition. This dataset is published by SCAR-AntOBIS under the license CC-BY 4.0. Please follow the guidelines from the SCAR and IPY Data Policies ( when using the data. If you have any questions regarding this dataset, please don't hesitate to contact us via the contact information provided in the metadata or via


Los datos en este recurso de registros biológicos han sido publicados como Archivo Darwin Core(DwC-A), el cual es un formato estándar para compartir datos de biodiversidad como un conjunto de una o más tablas de datos. La tabla de datos del core contiene 1.330 registros.

también existen 1 tablas de datos de extensiones. Un registro en una extensión provee información adicional sobre un registro en el core. El número de registros en cada tabla de datos de la extensión se ilustra a continuación.

Occurrence (core)

Este IPT archiva los datos y, por lo tanto, sirve como repositorio de datos. Los datos y los metadatos del recurso están disponibles para su descarga en la sección descargas. La tabla versiones enumera otras versiones del recurso que se han puesto a disposición del público y permite seguir los cambios realizados en el recurso a lo largo del tiempo.


La siguiente tabla muestra sólo las versiones publicadas del recurso que son de acceso público.

¿Cómo referenciar?

Los usuarios deben citar este trabajo de la siguiente manera:

Maxwell J, Gan Y, Van de Putte A, Griffiths H (2021): Sea spiders (Arthropoda, Pycnogonida) from ten recent research expeditions to the Antarctic Peninsula, Scotia Arc and Weddell Sea - data. v1.7. SCAR - AntOBIS. Dataset/Occurrence.


Los usuarios deben respetar los siguientes derechos de uso:

El publicador y propietario de los derechos de este trabajo es SCAR - AntOBIS. Este trabajo está autorizado bajo una Licencia Creative Commons Atribución/Reconocimiento 4.0 Internacional (CC-BY) 4.0.

Registro GBIF

Este recurso ha sido registrado en GBIF con el siguiente UUID: 1e7b6980-0842-4c4a-8b14-541b95d2ed3c.  SCAR - AntOBIS publica este recurso y está registrado en GBIF como un publicador de datos avalado por Ocean Biodiversity Information System.

Palabras clave

Occurrence; Specimen; ARTHROPODS; OCEAN


¿Quién creó el recurso?:

Jamie Maxwell
National University of Ireland, Galway
Yi-Ming Gan
Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences
Anton Van de Putte
Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences
Huw Griffiths

¿Quién puede resolver dudas acerca del recurso?:

Jamie Maxwell
National University of Ireland, Galway
Huw Griffiths
British Antarctic Survey
Yi-Ming Gan
Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences

¿Quién documentó los metadatos?:

Jamie Maxwell
National University of Ireland, Galway

Cobertura geográfica

The samples were collected from different areas in the Southern Ocean, mainly the Weddell sea, South Orkney Islands, and the Western Antarctic Peninsula.

Coordenadas límite Latitud Mínima Longitud Mínima [-77,358, -110,013], Latitud Máxima Longitud Máxima [-53,398, 2,881]

Cobertura taxonómica

Pycnogonida were identified to at least genus or species.

Reino Animalia, Chromista
Filo Annelida, Arthropoda, Bryozoa, Echinodermata, Foraminifera, Mollusca, Platyhelminthes, Porifera
Class Gastropoda, Malacostraca, Pycnogonida, Thecostraca, Bivalvia, Crinoidea

Cobertura temporal

Fecha Inicial / Fecha Final 2007-12-22 / 2019-04-02

Datos del proyecto

Pycnogonida or sea spiders are a class of Arthropoda, that are found throughout the marine realm. They are an understudied group, with little known about their biology, distribution and evolutionary history. Using specimens from the Southern Ocean deep sea the project aims to resolve some of these unknowns by 1) examining compositional and distributional trends; 2) investigating genetic structure among populations of pycnogonids relating structure to distribution, depth and life history strategy; 3) determining how different species are related; 4) testing the theory that the Southern Ocean is where the world’s pycnogonids originally evolved.

Título Untangling the Sea Spider’s web: Investigating the Biogeography and Evolutionary History of Pycnogonida
Identificador GOIPG/2019/4020
Fuentes de Financiación Funded by the Irish Research Council.

Personas asociadas al proyecto:

Claudia Arango
Jana Dömel
Proveedor de Contenido
Huw Griffiths
Louise Allcock

Métodos de muestreo

Sample Collection: The majority of the specimens were sampled using an Agassiz trawl (AGT) and an epibenthic sledge (EBS) with 165 AGT and 14 EBS deployments. The AGT had a mesh size of 1 cm and a mouth width of 2 m (except for JR17007 where the mouth was 1.25 m). AGTs were deployed to a depth of between 54 and 2279 m. The EBS had a suprabenthic- and an epibenthic net, both with a mesh size of 500 μm (cod-ends 300 μm). The epibenthic net extended from 27 cm to 60 cm above the bottom, with the suprabenthic net extending from 100 cm to 133 cm. The EBS was deployed as described by Brenke (2005) and was fitted with an open-closing mechanism so that the mouth of both nets were closed whenever the EBS was not in contact with the seafloor. EBSs were deployed to depths of between 436 and 5339 m. Both the AGT and EBS were deployed for approximately 10 minutes (trawling time) and at a speed of 1 knot. Pycnogonids were also recovered from Rauschert dredge (RD) deployments, once during PS118 and two occasions during both JR15005 and PS77. During PS118 and PS77 the RD mesh size was 1 mm, while a mesh of 500 μm was used on JR15005. The RD was deployed attached to the AGT with 5 metres of cable. Deployments were between 278.5 – 817 m. A bottom trawl was used during PS77, which was a 130ft trawl with a 10 mm herring codend. This was deployed 12 times at depths of between 223.5 and 486 m. The protocol for deployment of the BT was similar to that of the AGT but with slightly longer trawl times (approx 20 min). A single pycnogonid was recovered from a kelp raft that was recovered from the surface during JR15005.

Área de Estudio The pycnogonids in this study were collected during 10 research cruises, over 13 years, in the area between 110°W - 5°E, and 50°N - 78°S. The samples were collected from different areas in the Southern Ocean, mainly the Weddell sea, South Orkney Islands, and the Western Antarctic Peninsula. Sampling took place during 10 expeditions on the RRS James Clark Ross, RV Polarstern and RRS Discovery. In total 197 stations sampled contained at least one pycnogonid. Sampling took place between 2007 and 2019.
Control de Calidad - All records were validated. - Coordinates were plotted on map to verify the geographical location and locality. - All scientific names were checked for typo and matched to the species information backbone of Worlds Register of Marine Species ( and LSID were assigned to each taxa as scientificNameID. - Event date and time were converted into ISO 8601

Descripción de la metodología paso a paso:

  1. Sample Processing on deck: EBS – once gear was returned to deck, samples were sieved (300 μm) and/or transferred into precooled (-20°C) 96% ethanol, which were then stored at -20°C for at least 48 hours before further processing to avoid DNA degradation. After at least 48 hours samples were sorted to the lowest taxonomic level possible, counted and stored in 96% ethanol. AGT and BT – once on deck, samples were sorted to the lowest taxonomic level possible, counted, placed in precooled? 96% ethanol and stored at -20°C. All specimens recovered from the trawls during cruises on the RRS James Clark Ross were preserved in this way. It is not known if all specimens were kept on other cruises as sampling may have been selective. RD - The on deck protocol for the RD was the same as that for the EBS, unless specimens were large and immediately obvious, in which case these were separated straight away and transferred to percooled 96% ethanol and stored at -20°C. The kelp sample (Jr15005) was immediately sorted to the lowest taxonomic level possible, counted and stored in precooled 96% ethanol. Specimens remained in -20°C storage until returned to the UK. Once specimens were returned to British Antarctic Survey in Cambridge they were stored at ambient temperature.
  2. Treatment of samples: Every specimen was examined using a stereoscope and identified down to the lowest taxonomic rank possible, using the taxonomic keys and original descriptions (e.g. Hodgson, 1907, Gordon, 1938, 1944, Fry &Hedgpeth, Child 1994, 1995). The majority of samples (1019) were identified by J. Maxwell at the University of Ireland Galway, with additional 50 samples identified by J. Domel at both British Antarctic Survey and in Ruhr-Universität Bochum. The online portal World Registry of Marine Species (WoRMS) was used to confirm acceptance of species names and the online Biodiversity Heritage Library was used to source many of the original descriptions. Where identification was inconclusive only genus or family names were assigned. The nomenclature used for these specimens followed Horton, et al. (2021). To further aid in identification, tissue samples were sent to BOLD to be barcoded using COI-5P REGION of the cytochrome C oxidase subunit I gene. These will be made publicly available in the future but if not available at time of reading, they can be requested from the corresponding author. All the BAS samples are on long term loan to J Maxwell. All samples from DY099 are stored in the Natural History Museum London. The holotype of any new species discovered within the BAS samples will be sent to the NHM London.

Referencias bibliográficas

  1. Brenke, N., 2005. An epibenthic sledge for operations on marine soft bottom and bedrock. Marine Technology Society Journal, 39(2), 10-21.
  2. Hodgson, T.V., 1907. Pycnogonida. Nat. Hist. Reports Natl. Antarct. Exped. 1901-1904 3, 1–72.
  3. Gordon, I., 1938. Pycnogonida. Sci. reports Australas. Antarct. Exped. Zool. Bot. 2, 1–40.
  4. Gordon, I., 1944. Pycnogonida. B.A.N.Z.A.R.E. Reports, Ser. B 4, 1–72.
  5. Child, C.A., 1995a. Antarctic and Subantarctic Pycnogonida. III. The Family Nymphonidae. Antarct. Res. Ser. 69, 1–68.
  6. Child, C.A., 1995b. Antarctic and Subantarctic Pycnogonida. IV. The Families Colossendeidae and Rhynchotoraxidae. Antarct. Res. Ser. 69, 69–112.
  7. Child, C.A., 1995c. Antarctic and Subantarctic Pycnogonida. V. The Families Pycnogonidae, Phoxichilidiidae, Endeidae and Callipallenidae. Antarct. Res. Ser. 69, 113–165.
  8. Child, C.A., 1994a. Antarctic and Subantarctic Pycnogonida. I. The Family Ammotheidae. Antarct. Res. Ser. 63, 1–48.
  9. Child, C.A., 1994b. No TAntarctic and Subantarctic Pycnogonida. II. The Family Austrodecidae. Antarct. Res. Ser. 63, 49–99.
  10. Horton, T., Marsh, L., Bett, B.J., Gates, A.R., Jones, D.O., Benoist, N., Pfeifer, S., Simon-Lledó, E., Durden, J.M., Vandepitte, L. and Appeltans, W., 2021. Recommendations for the standardisation of open taxonomic nomenclature for image-based identifications. Frontiers in Marine Science, 8, p.62.

Metadatos adicionales

Identificadores alternativos 1e7b6980-0842-4c4a-8b14-541b95d2ed3c