SCAR Biogeographic Atlas of the Southern Ocean - macroalgae - Data

Latest version published by Antarctic Biodiversity Information Facility (ANTABIF) on Jan 23, 2020 Antarctic Biodiversity Information Facility (ANTABIF)
Publication date:
23 January 2020
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This dataset represents a literature study on the distribution of marcoalgae in Antarctic and Sub-Antarctic waters. Dataset supplied in the framework of the SCAR Biogeographic Atlas of the Southern Ocean (BASO). The Biogeographic Atlas of the Southern Ocean is a collection of representative maps and syntheses on the distribution of the Southern Ocean organisms, providing a general overview of the biogeography of the Southern Ocean (s.l.) and a benchmark of current biogeographic knowledge at the end of the Census of Antarctic Marine Life. This updates the well-known and useful but largely outdated biogeographic Folios of the Antarctic Map Folio Series (American Geographical Society). This dataset contains species records of macro algae from the Southern Ocean (locations below 40°S) reported in 72 publications published between 1890 and 2011.

Data Records

The data in this occurrence resource has been published as a Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A), which is a standardized format for sharing biodiversity data as a set of one or more data tables. The core data table contains 590 records.

This IPT archives the data and thus serves as the data repository. The data and resource metadata are available for download in the downloads section. The versions table lists other versions of the resource that have been made publicly available and allows tracking changes made to the resource over time.


The table below shows only published versions of the resource that are publicly accessible.


Researchers should respect the following rights statement:

The publisher and rights holder of this work is Antarctic Biodiversity Information Facility (ANTABIF). This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY 4.0) License.

GBIF Registration

This resource has been registered with GBIF, and assigned the following GBIF UUID: 03d5d1d2-934c-4c70-b4f1-e18402af109d.  Antarctic Biodiversity Information Facility (ANTABIF) publishes this resource, and is itself registered in GBIF as a data publisher endorsed by Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research.


Macroalgae; SCAR-MARBIN; BASO; CAML; Occurrence


Christian Wiencke
  • Originator
  • Point Of Contact
Prof. Dr.
Alfred Wegener Institute
Am Handelshafen 12
D-27570 Bremerhaven
Free Hanseatic City of Bremen
Charles D. Amsler
  • Originator
University of Alabama at Birmingham
Margaret N. Clayton
  • Originator
Monash University
Anton Van de Putte
  • Metadata Provider
Science Officer
Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences
Rue Vautier 29
1000 Brussels
02 627 43 18

Geographic Coverage

Southern Ocean and sub-Antarctic region

Bounding Coordinates South West [-77.85, -78.83], North East [-17.65, 179.27]

Taxonomic Coverage

All macro algae were identified to family or species

Kingdom Chromista, Plantae
Phylum Chlorophyta, Ochrophyta, Rhodophyta
Class Bangiophyceae, Florideophyceae, Phaeophyceae, Ulvophyceae
Order Ascoseirales, Bangiales, Bryopsidales, Ceramiales, Cladophorales, Desmarestiales, Ectocarpales, Fucales, Gigartinales, Palmariales, Plocamiales, Ulotrichales, Ulvales
Family Adenocystaceae, Ascoseiraceae, Bangiaceae, Bryopsidaceae, Cladophoraceae, Delesseriaceae, Desmarestiaceae, Gigartinaceae, Gomontiaceae, Palmariaceae, Phyllophoraceae, Plocamiaceae, Seirococcaceae, Ulotrichaceae, Ulvaceae, Wrangeliaceae
Genus Adenocystis, Ascoseira, Chaetomorpha, Cystosphaera, Desmarestia, Georgiella, Gigartina, Himantothallus, Iridaea, Lambia, Monostroma, Myriogramme, Palmaria, Phycodrys, Phyllophora, Plocamium, Porphyra, Ulva, Urospora
Species Adenocystis utricularis, Ascoseira mirabilis, Chaetomorpha mawsonii, Cystosphaera jacquinotii, Desmarestia anceps, Desmarestia antarctica, Desmarestia menziesii, Georgiella confluens, Gigartina skottsbergii, Himantothallus grandifolius, Iridaea cordata, Lambia antarctica, Monostroma hariotii, Myriogramme manginii, Palmaria decipiens, Phycodrys antarctica, Phyllophora antarctica, Plocamium cartilagineum, Porphyra plocamiestris, Pyropia endiviifolia, Ulva hookeriana, Urospora penicilliformis

Temporal Coverage

Start Date / End Date 1901-01-01 / 2013-01-01

Project Data

The “Biogeographic Atlas of the Southern Ocean” is a legacy of the International Polar Year 2007-2009 ( and of the Census of Marine Life 2000-2010 (, contributed by the Census of Antarctic Marine Life ( and the SCAR Marine Biodiversity Information Network (; The “Biogeographic Atlas” is a contribution to the SCAR programmes Ant-ECO (State of the Antarctic Ecosystem) and AnT-ERA (Antarctic Thresholds- Ecosystem Resilience and Adaptation) ( The Census of Marine Life, was an ambitious ten-year long international project that was to examine the world’s oceans and log the occurrence and demise of marine species. Its principal objective was to assess the state of marine biodiversity at the start of the 21st century to enable predictions to be made about what species might inhabit oceans in the future. By supporting scientific coordination, rather than putting ships in the water, the Foundation leveraged over USD 650 million in total outlays. The Census ran until a final meeting in October 2010 in the Royal Society in London at which outcomes from the six ocean realms under study were presented. In total, some 2700 scientists from 80 nations participated in the Census, undertaking 540 research expeditions and producing over 2600 publications. The ocean realm “Ice Ocean; Arctic and Antarctic” was the responsibility of two projects – Arctic Ocean Diversity (ArcOD) for the north of the globe, and the Census of Antarctic Marine Life (CAML) for the south. Both projects worked closely together and engaged in a number of joint initiatives. CAML started its activities mid-way through the Census, in 2005, following a deci- sion to hold a third International Polar Year (IPY) in 2007–2009. The Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) accepted a proposal from its Life Sciences committee that CAML should go ahead as one of fifteen biological projects to be undertaken in Antarctica during the IPY; in the event CAML turned out to be the largest of them. A key element in CAML’s success as a project was its close association with SCAR’s Marine Biodiversity Information Network (SCAR-MarBIN, www., a data portal initiated by the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences in Brussels, implemented by the Belgian Biodiversity Platform and supported financially by the Belgian Science Policy Office. It was accepted by SCAR as the main repository for marine biodiversity data in 2005. SCAR- MarBIN became CAML’s database.

Title Biogeographic Atlas of The Southern Ocean
Funding Published by: The Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research, Scott Polar Research Institute, Lensfield Road, Cambridge, CB2 1ER, United Kingdom ( Publication funded by: - The Census of Antarctic Marine Life (Albert P. Sloan Foundation, New York) - The TOTAL Foundation, Paris. The “Biogeographic Atlas of the Southern Ocean” shared the Cosmos Prize awarded to the Census of Marine Life by the International Osaka Expo’90 Commemorative Foundation, Tokyo, Japan. Publication supported by: - The Belgian Science Policy (Belspo), through the Belgian Scientific Research Programme on the Antarctic and the “” network (SCAR-MarBIN/ANTABIF) - The Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences (RBINS), Brussels, Belgium - The British Antarctic Survey (BAS), Cambridge, United Kingdom - The Université Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC), Paris, France - The Australian Antarctic Division, Hobart, Australia - The Scientific Steering Committee of CAML, Michael Stoddart (CAML Administrator) and Victoria Wadley (CAML Project Manager)

The personnel involved in the project:

Anton Van de Putte
  • Point Of Contact

Sampling Methods


Study Extent Literature study
Quality Control A common first step in data cleaning was to check the data-type constraints for all variables. In the provided template, each variable was associated with a particular data type (e.g. text for species names, or numeric values for latitudes and longitudes). Where possible, incorrect data types were transformed to the correct ones. The taxonomic information of the records was validated using RAMS through the taxon match tool on the WORMS website. For samples lacking geographic coordinates but possessing verbatim localities, approximate localities were determined using the SCAR gazetteer. In cases where records were georeferenced using degrees minutes seconds or degrees decimal seconds, these values were converted to decimal degrees. Plots of the data points were used to identify obvious outliers (e.g. points over land, or in the wrong hemisphere) and errors due to swapping of latitude and longitude values, or in the sign of decimal degrees.

Method step description:

  1. /

Collection Data

Collection Name AWI
Collection Identifier Literature study
Parent Collection Identifier
Specimen preservation methods Other

Bibliographic Citations

  1. Adams, N.M. 1994. Seaweeds of New Zealand. Christchurch, Canterbury University Press. 360p. Adams 1994
  2. Amsler, C.D., Rowley, R.J., Laur, D.R., Quetin, L.B., Ross, R.M., 1995. Vertical distribution of Antarctic peninsular macroalgae: cover, biomass and species composition. Phycologia, 34, 424-430 Amsler et al. 1995
  3. Amsler, C.D., Iken, K., McClintock, J.B., Amsler, M.O., Peters, K.J., Hubbard, J.M., Furrow, F.B., Baker, B.J., 2005b. Comprehensive evaluation of the palatability and chemical defenses of subtidal macroalgae from the Antarctic Peninsula. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 294, 141-159 Amsler et al. 2005
  4. Brouwer, P.E.M., Geilen, E.F.M., Gremmen, N.J.M., van Lent, F., 1995. Biomass, cover and zonation pattern of sublittoral macroalgae at Signy Island, South Orkney Islands, Antarctica. Botanica Marina, 38, 259-270 Brouwer et al.1995
  5. Chapman, V.J., 1956. The marine algae of New Zealand Part I: Myxophyceae and Chlorophyceae. The Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Botany, 55, 333-501 Chapman 1956
  6. Chung, H., Oh, Y.S., Lee, I.K., Kim, D-Y., 1994. Macroalgal vegetation of Maxwell Bay in King George Island, Antarctica. Korean Journal of Phycology 9, 47-58. Chung et al. 1994
  7. Clark, G.F., Stark, J.S., Perrett, L.A., Hill, N.A., Johnston, E.L., 2011. Algal canopy as a proxy for the disturbance history of understorey communities in East Antarctica. Polar Biology, 34, 781-790 Clark et al. 2011
  8. Cormaci, M., Furnari, G., Scammacca, B., 1992. The benthic algal flora of Terra Nova Bay (Ross Sea, Antarctica). Botanica Marina, 35, 541-552 Cormaci et al. 1992
  9. Cotton, A.D., 1915. Cryptogams from the Falkland Islands collected by Mrs. Vallentin and described by A.D. Cotton. Journal Linnaean Society, Botany, 43, 137-231 Cotton 1915
  10. DeLaca, T.E., Lipps, J.H., 1976 Shallow water marine associations, Antarctic Peninsula. Antarctic Journal of the United States, 11, 12-20 Delaca & Lipps 1976
  11. Dhargalkar, V.K., 1986. Some observations on the biota of the Vestfold Hills, Antarctica. In: Sharma, R.C. (ed) Growing Focus on Antarctica. Delhi: Rajesh Publications, 127-141 Dhargalkar 1986
  12. Dhargalkar, V.K., Burton, H.R., Kirkwood, J.M., 1988. Animal associations with the dominant species of shallow water macrophytes along the coastline of the Vestfold Hills, Antarctica. Hydrobiologia, 165, 141-150 Dhargalkar et al. 1988
  13. Dieckmann, G., Reichardt, W., Zielinski, K., 1985. Growth and production of the seaweed, Himantothallus grandifolius, at King George Island. In: Siegfried, W.R., Condy, P.R., Laws, R.M. (eds.): Antarctic nutrient cycles and food webs. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 104-108 Dieckmann et al. 1995
  14. Drew, E.A., Hastings, R.M., 1992. A year-round ecophysiological study of Himantothallus grandifolius (Desmarestiales, Phaeophyta) at Signy Island, Antarctica. Phycologia, 31, 262-277 Drew & Hastings 1992
  15. Etcheverry-Daza, H., 1983. Algas bentónicas de la Antártica Chilena. Serie Scientifica INACH, 30, 97-124 Etcheverry-Daza 1983
  16. Gallardo, T., Cobelas, M.A., 1994. Flora benthónica marina de la Bahia Sur, Isla Livingston (Shetland Del Sur), Antártica. Actas Simposio Espanol de Estudios Antárticos, 4, 159-168 Gallardo & Cobelas 1994
  17. Gallardo, T., Pérez-Ruzafa, I.M., Flores-Moya, A., Conde, F. 1999. New collections of benthic marine algae from Livingston and Deception Islands (South Shetland Islands) and Trinity Island (Bransfield Strait) Antarctica. Botanica Marina, 42, 61-69 Gallardo et al. 1999
  18. Gepp, A., Gepp, E.S., 1905. Antarctic algae. Journal of Botany, British and Foreign, 43, 105-109 Gepp & Gepp 1905
  19. Gepp, A., Gepp, E.S., 1907. Marine algae. I. Phaeophyceae and Florideae. National Antarctic Expedition 1901-1904. Natural History. Vol. III. Zoology and Botany. 1-15. 4 plates Gepp & Gepp 1907
  20. Hommersand, M.H., Fredericq, S., Freshwater, D.W., Hughey, J., 1999. Recent developments in the systematics of the Gigartinaceae (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta) based on rbcL sequence analysis and morphological evidence. Phycological Research, 47, 139-151 Hommersand et al. 1999
  21. Hylmö, D.E., 1919. Zur Kenntnis der subantarktischen und antarktischen Meeresalgen. III. Chlorophyceen. In: Nordenskjöld, O. (ed.). Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der schwedischen Südpolar-Expedition 1901-1903. Band 4, Lieferung 16, Berlin: Lithographisches Institut des Generalstabs. A. Asher & Co., Paris: Haar & Steinert, A. Eichler, Succir, London: Dulau & Co., 1-20 Hylmö 1919
  22. Johnston, E., Connell, S., Irving, A., Pile, A., Gillanders, B., 2007. Antarctic patterns of shallow subtidal habitat and inhabitants in Wilkes Land. Polar Biology, 30, 781-788 Johnson et al. 2007
  23. Kirkwood, J.M., Burton, H.R., 1988. Macrobenthic species assemblages in Ellis Fjord, Vestfold Hills; Antarctica. Marine Ecology, 97, 445-457 Kirkwood & Burton 1988
  24. Klöser, H., Quartino, M.L., Wiencke, C., 1996. Distribution of macroalgae and macroalgal communities in gradients of physical conditions in Potter Cove, King George Island, Antarctica. Hydrobiologia, 333, 1-17 Klöser et al. 1996
  25. Kylin, H., Skottsberg , C., 1919. Zur Kenntnis der Subantarktischen und Antarktischen Meeresalgen, II. Rhodophyceen. In: Nordenskjöld, O. (ed.). Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der schwedischen Südpolarexpedition 1901-1903, Band IV, Lieferung 15, London W: Lithographisches Institut des Generalstabs, Stockholm: A.Asher & Co., Berlin W: Haar & Steinert, A.Eichler, Succir, Paris: Dulau & Co., 1-88 Kylin & Skottsberg 1919
  26. Lamb, I.M., Zimmermann, M.H., 1977. Benthic marine algae of the Antarctic Peninsula. Antarctic Research Series, 23, Biology of the Antarctic Seas V, Paper 4, 129-229 Lamb & Zimmermann 1977
  27. Levring, T., 1944. Meeresalgen von den Crozet-Inseln und Kerguelen. Arkiv för Botanik, 31 A, 1-31 Levring 1944
  28. Lucas, A.H.S., 1919. The algae of Commonwealth Bay. Australasian Antarctic Expedition 1911-14. Scientific Reports. Series C.-Zoology and Botany, 8, 5-18 Lucas 1919
  29. Miller, A.K., Pearse, J.S., 1991. Ecological studies of seaweeds in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. American Zoologist, 31, 35-48 Miller & Pearse 1991
  30. Moe, R.L., DeLaca, T.E., 1976. Occurrence of macroscopic algae along the Antarctic Peninsula. Antarctic Journal of the United States, 11, 20-24 Moe & DeLaca 1976
  31. Moe, R.L., Henry, E.C.,1982. Reproduction and early development of Ascoseira mirabilis Skottsberg (Phaeophyta), with notes on Ascoseirales Petrov. Phycologia, 21, 55-66 Moe & Henry 1982
  32. Moe, R.L. Silva, P.C., 1981. Morphology and taxonomy of Himantothallus (including Phaeoglossum and Phyllogigas), an Antarctic member of the Desmarestiales (Phaeophyceae). Journal of Phycology, 17, 15-29 Moe & Silva 1981
  33. Moe, R.L., Silva, P.C., 1983. Morphological and taxonomic studies of Antarctic Ceramiaceae (Rhodophyceae). III. Georgiella and Plumariopsis (Tribe Ptiloteae). British Phycological Journal, 18, 275-298 Moe & Silva 1983
  34. Moe, R.L., Silva, P.C., 1989. Desmarestia antarctica (Desmarestiales, Phaeophyceae), a new ligulate Antarctic species with an endophytic gametophyte. Plant Systematics and Evolution, 164, 273-283 Moe & Silva 1989
  35. Neushul, M., 1965. Diving observation of sub-tidal Antarctic marine vegetation. Botanica Marina, 8, 234-243 Neushul 1965
  36. Ohno, M., 1976. On the seaweeds from the coast of Lützow-Holm Bay, Antarctica. Antarctic Record, 57, 136-140 Ohno 1976
  37. Oliveira, E., Absher, T., Pellizzari, F., Oliveira, M., 2009. The seaweed flora of Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Antarctic. Polar Biology, 32, 1639-1647 Oliveira et al. 2009
  38. Peters, K.J., Amsler, C.D., Amsler, M.O., McClintock, J.B., Dunbar, R.B., Baker, B.J., 2005. A comparative analysis of the nutritional and elemental composition of macroalgae from the western Antarctic Peninsula. Phycologia, 44, 453-463 Peters et al. 2005
  39. Quartino, M.L., Klöser, H., Schloss, I.R., Wiencke, C., 2001. Biomass and associations of benthic marine macroalgae from the inner Potter Cove (King George Island, Antarctica) related to depth and substrate. Polar Biology, 24, 349-355 Quartino et al. 2001
  40. Reinbold, Th., 1907. Die Meeresalgen der deutschen Tiefsee-Expedition 1898-1899. In: Chun, C. (ed.). Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der deutschen Tiefseeexpedition auf dem Dampfer „Valdivia“ 1898-1899. Jena: Verlag von Gustav Fischer, 550-586 Reinbold 1907
  41. Reinsch, P. F., 1890. Zur Meeresalgenflora von Südgeorgien. In: Neumayer, G. von (ed.). Die internationale Polarforschung 1882-1883. Die Deutschen Expeditionen und ihre Ergebnisse. Vol. 2. Beschreibende Naturwissenschaften, Berlin: Herrmann, 366-449, plates 1-19 Reinsch 1890
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  44. Runcie, J.W., Riddle, M.J., 2006. Photosynthesis of marine macroalgae in ice-covered and ice-free environments in East Antarctica. European Journal of Phycology, 41, 223-233 Runcie & Riddle 2006
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  57. Wiencke, C., tom Dieck, I., 1990. Temperature requirements for growth and survival of macroalgae from Antarctica and Southern Chile. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 59, 157-170 Wiencke & tom Dieck 1990
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  61. Zaneveld, J.S., 1966. The occurrence of benthic marine algae under shore fast-ice in the western Ross Sea, Antarctica. Proceedings International Seaweed Symposium, 5, 217-231 Zaneveld 1966
  62. Zaneveld, J.S., 1968. Benthic marine algae, Ross Island to Balleny Islands. Antarctic Map Folio Series, Folio, 10, 1-12 Zaneveld 1968
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Additional Metadata

marine, harvested by iOBIS